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... History of our land since ancient times ...

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The oldest human traces of  habitat on the banks of the Dniester dates back to 300 thousand years ago, the period of the early Paleolithic (3 million - 120 thousand years ago), during the warming and retreat of the Great Glacier to the north. People lived in conditions of prenatal society, a group of hunters and gatherers (primitive flock). The most ancient inhabitants of our region belonged to the Pithecanthropes. (photo 1) The most ancient people lived in caves and grottoes, they knew how to use natural fire. The main occupations were hunting for large animals and gathering edible fruits, roots and mollusks. Ancient people made the simplest tools of labor out of stone in the early Paleolithic: chopped, scraped and tip. Techniques for the manufacture of such instruments were primitive and belong to the Achelean archaeological culture. The parking Ashele time - the cave at with. Vyhvatintsy Rybnitsa district is known. The remains of the early Paleolithic tools were found in the area of modern Tiraspol. (photo 2)

In the period of the Middle Paleolithic (120 - 40 thousand years ago) the most ancient people (pite-canthropes) were replaced by the ancient people (paleanthropes) - Neanderthals. (photo 3) Neanderthals lived in a team of blood relatives, but they did not yet know the marriage. The basis of relations in the team was a commonality on dwellings, hunting territories and on all the mining. In essence, during this period, the foundations of the primitive community were laid, which found its further development in the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic. The economic basis of the new society was  hunting and fishing, which required the co-ordination of action or collective labor. In the conditions of the beginning of a new cooling, people learned to build dwellings in open areas. A significant achievement of man of the Middle Paleolithic was the making of fire. The tools were made of silicon and wood and consisted of several parts. The technique of stone processing has become much more accomplished, the working part had a more acute and effective form. The pictorial culture and the first burial traditions and religious traditions were born. Middle Paleolithic in archeology is called the period of mist. Parking Mousterian culture  was found in the village. Rashkov, Kamensky district. (card 1)

In the Late Paleolithic (40–12 thousand years ago) a modern type of man appeared - Cro-Magnon. He was already able to make complex tools - knives, scrapers, cutters and other tools of stone and bone. Cro-Magnon lived generic. A large family was divided into small groups of close relatives, there was an institution of marriage. Engaged in traditional activities: hunting, fishing and gathering. The means of transportation were invented: skis and a boat. The Cro-Magnon station was found in the grottoes near the villages of Klimauti of the Sholdanetsky and Rashkov Kamensky Districts. (photo 4)

The period of the Mesolithic (VIII - V millennium BC) is characterized by tools with inserts-geometric forms (arrowheads, knives, etc.). The end of the period of the Great Glaciation led to the formation of a new environment, a change in the flora and fauna in the region. The invention of the bow and arrow allowed people to hunt birds and small animals. (photo 5) The beginnings of cattle breeding and agriculture appeared in the Mesolithic. The most typical Mesolithic sites: near the villages of Belochi, Podoyma, Rashkov, Senatovka Kamensky and with. Novo-Andriyashevka Slobodazeysky districts.

By VI mil. BC among the local Mesolithic tribes - fishers and hunters - the process of transition to cattle breeding and agriculture continued, which ended in the Neolithic period. This transition has made changes in all branches of the production activity of the Neolithic man. People learn to grind, polish, drill hard stone. The dishes from baked clay appeared. The oldest Neolithic culture on the territory of the Dniester region - Bug-Dniester - is known for the group of small settlements located near the town of Soroki. They consisted of semi-earths and land dwellings. The population bred cattle, pigs, cultivated membranous wheat and barley. Fishery, hunting and gathering persisted. Silicon inventory: scrapers, files, knives, drills, etc. Ceramics were made of clay with vegetable admixture. The social structure is the maternal gender. There is a cult of the great goddess - mother. (photo 6)/

At the end of V th. BC. e. - Prut lands, tribes of the culture of linear - tape and musical ceramics penetrated  the Dniester. They lived in semi-dugouts and  land dwellings; engaged in cattle breeding, farming, to a lesser extent - hunting and gathering; made flint tools and ground axes. The ceramics made by them was well clogged and decorated with musical ornament. Public relations and religious beliefs are close to those that prevailed among the tribes of Bug - Dniester culture (matriarchy). (photo 7)

At the turn of V - IV thousand BC. in the Dniester-Carpathian lands, as a result of close contacts of carriers of cultures of linear-tape ceramics and Bugo-Dniester, the strong influence of the Lower Danube “Boyan” culture gives rise to the Tripoli culture of the Copper-Stone Age (Eneolithic), which developed about 2 thousand years. At first, the Tripoli built open settlements on the banks of rivers, and later - fortified in elevated places. The most characteristic  were land dwellings. At the early stage, typical ceramics with in-depth  painted and combined ornament, at the late stage - painted ceramics, in the patterns of which images of animals and people are often found. Flint and slate implements (triangular arrowheads and darts, sickle liners, polished axes and tesla), as well as hoes, battle axes and other items made of horns and bones were common. Jewelry and small tools made of copper are known. Tripoli bred cattle and small ruminants, pigs, horses; cultivated membranous and bare-grain types of wheat, barley, millet, legumes, grapes, apricot, plum; engaged in hunting and gathering. They lived in the conditions of a developed maternal clan system by large family communities, each of which acted as a single economic and organizational unit within the tribe. In the late Tripoli time, the transition to patriarchy begins. Complex beliefs emerge, in which the main role is still played by the images of the great goddess - the mother, personifying the life-giving forces of nature. Ground burial grounds  were discovered. The Tripoli   tribes maintain close ties with the Balkan world, the tribes of the culture of funnel-shaped cups of Volyn and Povislia. Perhaps there are primitive money in the form of the fangs of a deer and their imitations of stone. The most famous monuments: Vyhvatintsy (burial ground) and Zhura Rybnitsa district.

In the period of the Bronze Age (the end of the 3rd - the beginning of the 1st millennium BC), there is a further development of the tribes inhabiting the territory of Transnistria. By the end of the epoch  tools of bronze were widely used. People increasingly used wheeled vehicles, cattle as a force, and the horse for riding. In the early period of the Bronze Age (the end of the 3rd - the first third of the 2nd millennium BC) nomadic cattle breeding prevailed, on average (the second third of the 2nd millennium BC) and late (the third third of the 2nd millennium - the beginning of the 1st millennium BC) periods the population becomes sedentary, engaging in both farming and cattle breeding. It bred large and small cattle, pigs, horses, cultivated wheat, barley, millet, peas, etc. The main crafts: stone and bone processing, weaving. At the end of the bronze period, metal processing is becoming more common. By this time, the territory of Transnistria was divided into two zones: forest-steppe and steppe. (card 3)

The tribes of the culture "Noua" lived in the forest-steppe zone t, they were replaced by the tribes of the culture of the early Thracian Hallstatt, which marked the transition to the gland. In the steppe zone lived Cimmerians. Monuments of the early and middle periods of bronze are represented mainly by burial mounds scattered around the edge. Settlements and burial grounds of the late period of the Bronze Age were found near the villages of Novo-Kotovsk and Ternovka of Slobodzia and the village of Koshnitsa, Dubossarsky district. 

During the whole Bronze Age, the patriarchal family was the main social unit. The development of agriculture, the relatively high productivity of animal husbandry, the mining obtained during wars and predatory campaigns, led to the emergence of a tribal elite, which becomes the owner of considerable wealth. (photo 8)

First half of I millennium BC e. was marked by fundamental changes in the economy and economic activities of society associated with the use of iron for the manufacture of tools of labor and weapons. In the X century. BC. early Thracian tribes advanced in the forest-steppe part of the Dniester-Prut interfluve, carriers of the Thracian galyptate culture, who already knew iron. Cimmerians continue to live in the steppe part of the region. At the beginning of the first millennium BC the steppe part of the Black Sea region and the Crimea  were inhabited  by the Cimmerians. It was a numerous and militarily strong  tribal union . The origin of the Cimmerians is associated with the tribes of the late Bronze Age log culture. The basis of the economy of the Cimmerians was nomadic herding. The burials are characterized by the crouched position of skeletons, numerous finds of horse harness (bit, stirrups). Also, historical Cimmerians are identified with representatives of Belozersky culture, as well as Belogrudovskaya and Chernolsky. In the VII century. BC. Cimmerians were driven from their territory into the regions of Asia Minor by nomadic Scythian tribes who came from the Caspian steppes. (Map 4)

There are three stages in the development of the culture of the Thracian galaptata on the territory of the Dniester-Prut interfluve,: early (10th-9th centuries BC), characterized by a transition from late Bronze to early iron; middle (VIII - VI centuries. BC), which is inherent in the distribution of iron tools, and late (V century. BC) - transitional from the culture of the Thracian Hallstatt to the Geta. Thracian tribes inhabited open settlements consisting of terracotta mud houses on the wicker frame and dugouts. Dwellings were heated by open foci or earthen dome furnaces. The main occupations are agriculture and cattle breeding. Forging, bronze casting, ceramic, woodworking, bone-cutting, weaving and other industries were also developed. (photo 10)

In the funeral rite, burnt burning in the ground burial grounds prevailed, however, there were cases and destructive positions. Property differentiation is still insignificant. The population lived in the conditions of a developed primitive communal system. A large complex of archaeological monuments was found in the area of the villages of Saharna and Soloncheny of the Rezina region of Moldova. Thracian settlements existed until the VII century. BC. On the basis of the material culture of the Thracian Hallstatt, the Goethe culture is formed.

In the period IV - III centuries. BC. Goethe (Goeto-Dacians), one of the groups of the North-Thracian tribes, were settled on the territory of the Dniester-Prut interfluve. The Goethe lived in both fortified and unfortified settlements, built ground quadrangular wattle and daub on the wooden frame of the house, as well as dwellings of a semi-earthy type. The remains of such dwellings were found in the area of Bendery fortress, as well as in the villages of Varnitsa and Kitskany. In the funeral rite of the Goethe, there is observed biritualism with a predominance of burnt burn in urns. In the material culture, especially in ceramics, almost all the main forms of the preceding period of the Thracian Hallstatt survived, but some new, specific forms of blood vessels appeared. (photo 11)

The basis of the Goethe economy is farming and cattle breeding; they were also engaged in fishing and stalking. Ironing, blacksmithing and jewelry making was developed. Spinning and weaving were at the level of home production. The development of agriculture and cattle breeding contributed to the emergence of trade. A great influence on the Goethe population of the Dniester-Carpathian lands was exerted by the Greek cities-colonies of the north-western coast of the Black Sea. From these cities, the Goethe brought jewelry, weapons, vessels, etc. In turn, they supplied bread, livestock, prisoner-of-war slaves, and others. The Goethe were also closely associated with the Scythians and other tribes.

The study of written, epigraphic, numismatic and archaeological data suggests that the Goethe were united in tribal alliances. The process of social stratification of the Goethe, although it began a long time ago, in the 4th-5th centuries. BC. was still far from complete. In general, Goethe society was at the stage of military democracy.

By the end of III - the beginning of II centuries. BC. tribes of the Pomor culture, which in written sources are usually identified with the Bastarians, or Galatians, invade the territory of the Goethe. As a result of the merging of local and alien components, a population emerged that created a new material culture, known as Lukashevskoy. In the new ethno-cultural community, the Goethe elements prevailed. The newcomers did not make any dramatic changes in the nature of the material culture of the region. (Map 5)

In the IV - III centuries. BC. the steppe part of the coast of the Dniester estuary was inhabited by settled tribes, which differed from the Thracians, in which researchers usually see Herodotically Hellenic Scythians. During the military campaigns and raids in the Dniester-Carpathian lands, in addition to the settled Scythians, nomadic Scythian tribes and squads penetrated.

The development of the economy among settled Scythians, apparently, was close in its level to the economy of their Thracian neighbors, while among the Scythian nomads, it was a typical nomadic economy, in which horse breeding and the distribution of small ruminants were significant. At the beginning of our era, Iranian-speaking Sarmatian tribes related to the Scythians began to move into the Dniester-Carpathian lands. Their contacts with ancient city centers accelerated the process of decomposition of the primitive society among the Sarmatians. (Photo 12)

 In the 1st c. BC., the disintegration of the tribal relations of goethe-dacians continues. At the same time, Roman expansion intensifies. The Romans create the province of Lower Moesia. In 57 AD  their garrison  enter  - Tire at the mouth of the Dniester. In the south of the Dniester-Prut interfluve of the I Italian and V Macedonian legions. Many researchers believe that in order to fight the invading nomads, the Romans erected a southern Trayanov ramp that crossed the interfluve from west to east. (Photo 13)

Roman expansion accelerated the formation of early political formations in the Goethe-Dacs. So, in I century BC. the union of the Goethe-Dacian tribes under the leadership of the Burebista is well known, but it soon collapsed. Then the center of political education Goethe-Dacians moved to the region of the Carpathians, where in the I century AD there are early forms of state action.

After two fierce wars (101 - 102 and 105 - 106), the Roman emperor Traian seized part of the lands of the Goethe-Dacians and formed the province of Dacia. It was inhabited by Roman and Romanized colonists. The authorities pursued a policy of the Romanization of Goethe-Dacians. The Dniester-Prut interfluve was not part of Dacia, and there was no Romanization as such, but the population of this territory also experienced a certain Roman influence. In 271, under pressure from the barbarians, the Romans were forced to leave Dacia and retreat to the right bank of the Danube. According to surviving sources, a part of the romanized population of Dacia was also evacuated. However, in cities, villages, especially in the foothill areas, a part of the Romanized population still remained, first of all the poor, who did not want or could not leave their homes. In the course of the “Great Migration of Peoples”, various barbarous tribes penetrated into Dacia: the Tayfals, Heruli, Goths, Vandals, Gepids, Sarmatians and other tribes.

Under the conditions of continuous, devastating, bloody invasions of migrating tribes, the local Romanized population was largely exterminated. The inhabitants of the foothills, mobile cattlemen during the raids went with their families and herds to  forests and mountains. In relatively quiet periods, this Romanized population, which managed to preserve and partially revive the communal order, returned to the foothills. It became one of the elements of the ethnos of Volokhov, the ancestors of the Eastern Romance peoples, which was taking shape later. (Map 6)

In III - IV centuries, on the territory of the Dniester region, Chernyakhovskaya culture was developed (settlements near the villages of Karagash, Glinoe Slobodzeya, Butor, Tokmazii, Grigoriopol district, etc.), whose carriers were Thracians, Sarmatians, Veneds, Goths, etc. These tribes continued the process of disintegration of tribal relations there were elements of patriarchal slavery. They were sedentary farmers and herders. The craft (pottery, iron, etc.) was separated from agriculture, the rudiments of internal monetary circulation appeared. At the end of IV c. the Huns who devastated these lands scattered and destroyed the tribes of the Chernyakhov culture, the remnants of which were later assimilated by the Slavs. (card 7)

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